Ragged and Shot-Holed Leaves Diagnosing Insect Injury
A.G. Wheeler, Jr. and K. Valley
Abstract: Various abiotic and biotic factors that caused ragged edges and holes in leaves of trees and shrubs are sometimes difficult to diagnose. When insects are responsible for such injury, a chewing species is not always involved. Perforated foliage may result from feeding by sucking insects and leafminers and from egg laying or oviposition. Common examples of such activity on shade trees and ornamentals are discussed.