Long-Term Growth of Highway Rights-of-Way Trees
Allyson B. Salisbury, Jason W. Miesbauer, and Andrew K. Koeser
Abstract: Background: Highway rights-of-ways (ROWs, or verges) contain multiple stressors which can influence tree growth, including compacted soils, soils with little topsoil, poor drainage, air and soil pollutants, construction activities, and de-icing salts in cold climates. Yet highway ROWs often provide ample planting space for growing trees, which can contribute to the mitigation of negative environmental impacts associated with highways. Methods: For this study, we assessed the trunk diameter of 1,058 trees from 11-, 22-, and 31-year-old planting cohorts along a highway in the Chicago metropolitan region (Illinois, USA) to examine factors which could influence long-term growth. We analyzed the impact of location factors within the ROW (e.g., distance and elevation relative to highway, slope, and aspect) on trunk diameter at breast height (DBH), since these factors are relevant to the landscape design process. Using estimates from i-Tree, we compared carbon sequestration, carbon storage, runoff reduction, and air-pollution removal within and among the 3 cohorts. Results: Of the 6 site location characteristics we evaluated, no single characteristic consistently impacted DBH, though some characteristics were significant within a single cohort. DBH measurements of most species were smaller than model predictions based on existing urban tree models. Since all cohorts included large- and small-statured trees, and even within species DBH could be highly variable, the range in per-tree ecosystem services varied substantially within cohorts, especially the 31-year-old cohort. Conclusions: These findings highlight both the potential for and challenges of growing trees alongside highways.
Keywords: Ecosystem Services; i-Tree; Roadside Woody Vegetation; Site Conditions; Urban Tree Growth.