Street Tree Diversity in Three Northeastern U.S. States
F.D. Cowett and Nina Bassuk
Abstract: Street tree diversity is widely viewed as a key component in the resilience of street tree populations to pests, diseases, and climate change. Assessment of street tree diversity is considered integral to sustainable street tree management and preservation of the ecosystem services and social benefits that street trees provide. This paper assesses street tree diversity in three northeastern U.S. states—New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania— by analyzing municipal street tree inventory data stratified by the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zones. Despite the lesson learned from the historical devastation of overplanted American elms (Ulmus americana) by Dutch elm disease, and awareness of the contemporary threats posed to ashes (Fraxinus spp.) by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and to maples (Acer spp.), and other tree genera by the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), results presented here indicate a current concentration of street trees among a relatively small number of species and genera, and in particular the dominance of maples as street trees. Results also show a positive relationship between street tree diversity and warmer average minimum winter temperatures. Consequently, there is a clear need in all three states for greater species and genus diversity in statewide and municipal street tree populations. However, meaningful impediments exist to increasing street tree diversity, especially in the short term.
Keywords: Acer spp.; Diversity Indices; Ecosystem Services; New Jersey; New York; Pennsylvania; Resilience; Street Trees.