Tree Biomechanics Literature Review: Dynamics
Kenneth R. James, Gregory A. Dahle, Jason Grabosky, Brian Kane,
and Andreas Detter
Abstract: Tree biomechanics studies using dynamic methods of analysis are reviewed. The emphasis in this review is on the biomechanics of open-grown trees typically found in urban areas, rather than trees in forests or plantations. The distinction is not based on species but on their form, because open-grown trees usually grow with considerable branch mass and the dynamic response in winds may be different to other tree forms. Methods of dynamic analysis applied to trees are reviewed. Simple tree models have been developed to understand tree dynamic responses, but these largely ignore the dynamics of branches. More complex models and finite element analyses are developing a multimodal approach to represent the dynamics of branches on trees. Results indicate that material properties play only a limited role in tree dynamics and it is the form and morphology of the tree and branches that can influence the dynamics of trees.
Keywords: Biomechanics; Dynamics; Modes; Open-grown Trees; Urban Trees; Wind.